Secure E-healthcare System Based on Biometric Approach




PSNR, LSB, watermarking, Legendre Moment, DCT


A secure E-health care system is satisfying by maintaining data authenticity and privacy. Authentic users only access and edit medical records, any alteration in the medical records may result in a misdiagnosis and, as a result, harm the patient's life. Biometric method and watermarking modes are utilized to satisfy goal, such as Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Least Significant Bit (LSB). In this work focused on a biometric watermarking system where the iris code of the sender programmed as a sender authentication key. The confidentiality of the patient information is safeguarded via encrypting it with an XOR algorithm and embedding the key in the DCT image. The algorithm has demonstrated which is suggested system has met earlier constraints. We used samples of original watermarked images with PSNR value, embedding time and extraction time, the lowest embedding time was 0.0709 and the PSNR value was 49.2369.


Metrics Loading ...


Khalil M, Jones R. Electronic Health Services: An Introduction to Theory and Application. Libyan J Med. 2007;2(4):202–210. doi: 10.4176/071117.

Liao X, Yin J, Guo S, Li X, Sangaiah AK. Medical JPEG image steganography based on preserving inter-block dependencies. Comput Electr Eng. 2018;67:320–329. doi: 10.1016/j.compeleceng.2017.08.020.

Hazzaa HM, Ahmed SK. Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Images Authentication. Proc - 2015 4th Int Conf Adv Comput Sci Appl Technol ACSAT 2015. 2016;239–244. doi: 10.1109/ACSAT.2015.48.

Aparna P, Kishore PVV. An Efficient Medical Image Watermarking Technique in E-healthcare Application Using Hybridization of Compression and Cryptography Algorithm. J Intell Syst. 2018;27(1):115–133. doi: 10.1515/jisys-2017-0266.

Zear A, Singh AK, Kumar P. A proposed secure multiple watermarking techniques based on DWT, DCT and SVD for application in medicine. Multimed Tools Appl. 2016; doi: 10.1007/s11042-016-3862-8.

Çetinel G, Çerkezi L. Wavelet-Based Medical Image Watermarking Scheme for Patient Information Authenticity. Int J Appl Math Electron Comput. 2016;4(Special Issue-1):220. doi: 10.18100/ijamec.270334.

AzzRaq MA, Shaikh RA. Digital Image Security: Fusion of Encryption, Steganography and Watermarking. 2017;8(5):224–228.

Haddada LR, Dorizzi B, Essoukri N, Amara B. A combined watermarking approach for securing biometric data. Signal Process Image Commun. 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.image.2017.03.008.

Hnoohom N, Sriyapai C, Ketcham M. Robust watermarking for medical image authentication based on DWT with QR codes in telemedicine. Springer International Publishing; 2018.

Thakur S, Singh AK, Ghrera SP, Elhoseny M. Multi-layer security of medical data through watermarking and chaotic encryption for telehealth applications. Multimed Tools Appl. 2019;78(3):3457–3470. doi: 10.1007/s11042-018-6263-3.

Santhi SPB. A Novel Visual Medical Image Encryption for Secure Transmission of Authenticated Watermarked Medical Images. 2019.

Mohammed NF, Jawad MJ, Ali SA. Biometric-based medical watermarking system for verifying privacy and source authentication. 2020;47(3):2–13.

Turker M, Koc-san D. Building extraction from high-resolution optical spaceborne images using the integration of support vector machine (SVM) classification, Hough transformation and perceptual grouping. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf. 2015;34:58–69. doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2014.06.016.

Proenc H, Alexandre A. Iris Recognition: An Analysis of the Aliasing Problem in the Iris Normalization Stage. 2006;1771–1774.

Cherabit N, Chelali FZ, Djeradi A. Circular Hough Transform for Iris localization. Sci Technol. 2012;2(5):114–121. doi: 10.5923/j.scit.20120205.02.

Arvacheh E. A study of segmentation and normalization for iris recognition systems. Masters Dissertation. Univ. Waterloo; 2006. Available from:


Chong CW, Raveendran P, Mukundan R. Translation and scale invariants of Legendre moments. Pattern Recognit. 2004;37(1):119–129. doi: 10.1016/j.patcog.2003.06.003.

Ben Halima N, Khan MA, Kumar R. A novel approach of digital image watermarking using HDWT-DCT. GSCIT 2015 - Glob Summit Comput Inf Technol - Proc. 2015; doi: 10.1109/GSCIT.2015.7353317.




How to Cite

Fadhil Mohammed A, Nahi HA, Majed Mosa A, Kadhim I. Secure E-healthcare System Based on Biometric Approach. Data and Metadata [Internet]. 2023 Jul. 8 [cited 2023 Dec. 3];2:56. Available from: